Mythological images of Slavic gods 3.
In the East Slav mythology 'the heroic beginning' is not so expressed. The annals speak about Svarog's son -Dazhbog - Tsar (king) -sun. "The fragment about Svarog, the father of the sun, is connected to an insert about Sovius in John Malala's "Chronicle". These both texts, probably, reflect the common cultural tradition connected to tradition of cremation. There are in Baltic Slav culture Svarozich (differently named Radegast, Radigast, Redigost, Riedigost) it was venerated in the cult centre Retra as one of the main gods which attributes were a horse and spears (like Svantevit)..." (Myths of nations of the world, 1998, v. 2, p. 420). "The Tsar-sun" was compared by Rybakov with Scythian Colaxay - "Sun-king" (Rybakov, 1994, 434). He compares a legend stated by Herodot, with popular Slavic fairy tale on three empires. Three brothers-bogatyrs (hero) release princesses, stolen by Serpent or the Whirlwind. They extract three empires: Copper, Silver and Gold, last of which was got by younger brother. (Rybakov, 1994, 578 - 580).
In the Serbian folklore the Tsar-sun is described sitting on a purple throne, and near from him there are two maidens - Morning down and Evening glow, seven judges - planets and the seven emissaries flying in an image of stars. Here is the uncle of him bald month also. (Afanasjev, 1994. v. 1).
It is necessary to note thatDazhbog was considered as a deity of white light, instead of a star. The sun was thought as his crown. In this quality Dazhbog it is similar Mitra. And Hors was considered as a solar disk.
In medieval Russia the legend as Alexander the Great has risen on the sky on wonderful eagles or griffins was popular. It is embodied in decor of a cathedral in Vladimir, on diadems 12 c. A.D., on Russian embroideries. Everywhere it is shown the young man in a crown, on a chariot harnessed by birds or griffins. In opinion Rybakov the name of legendary tsar here covers image of Dazhbog (the image of the legendary king rising to the sky, is known and in ancient Iran mythologies. He was Kay Kavus ("Shahname") who according to some of sacred texts also has constructed seven magic palaces on sacred mountain (mountain Berezan of the Russian plots returning youth (Rak, 1998, 230 - 236).
Sometimes the basic form of this god name considers as 'Dazhbog', deducing it from Indo-European 'burn', that is 'the burning god' turns out. But the majority of researchers bases on other spelling - 'Dazhdbog', that is deciphered as 'granting god'. In this quality the image is similar with Indian Bhaga.
Probably, one of epithets of this Slavic god was 'White god', who opposites 'Black god'. Late White god's expression was Belun in the Belorussian folklore. He was represented as old man in white clothes, with a white beard and a staff in hands. During harvest he is present on fields and helps peasants, and also save people in wood and gives riches. (Afanasjev, 1994. v. 1).
For us the big value takes place in "the Word about Igor's regiment" where ancient Russians are named 'Dazhdbog's grandsons'. He can be treated as the indication of a role of a primogenitor, that in addition confirms our identification Dazhdbog with the Cultural Hero.
Rybakov results norrth Russian an embroidery on which the horseman. "The Horseman is unusual: the head of him is given as romb filled with crosses and a figure with eight beams. His hands were raised to the sky" (Rybakov, 1994, 500 - 501). The scientist considers that this is Dazhdbog and writes that in Russian embroideries such plot a rarity. But in arts and crafts of Ob-Ugrians the horseman with the hands lifted to heavens is the most typical image. This isMir-Susne-Hum ('Behind the world observing person'), their national hero whom, it is similar Dazhdbog is the god-son. Mir-Susne-Hum is considered younger son Num-Torum, supreme god of Ob-Ugrians (Ostyak - Hant and Vogul - Mansi) pantheon (and peoples Samodi groups), but frequently are carried out with a role of the defender of people before anger of the father. "Each night Mir-Susne-Hum goes round the ground on winged all-seeing horse with a gold mane and silver hoofs, checking, whether all in the world in the order, and transferring people orders of father Num-Torum. He hears requests of shaman (near to sacral place four metal plates with images of the sun put for hoofs of a horse). Mir-Susne-Hum helps treatment of illnesses, assignment of dangers. To him functions of the Cultural Hero are attributed (he has created abundance, there is no time reigned on the ground; has won essences hostile to people; ordered to birds fly in the summer in northern territories and has trained people in hunting for birds) and the breeding patron of Ostyak - Hant and Vogul - Mansi" (Myths of nations of the world, 1998, v. 2, 153 - 154). The idea of the sacred king charged by divine energy which should not go on the black ground is present at many cultures (and not only so-called "arrested persons in development" but also, for example, Etruscan culture). However there are in image of Ob-Ugrian hero traces of Indo-European influence. It is not occasionally as Ob-Ugrian closely communicated with them in the west (Scandinavians), a southwest (Slavs) and the south (Iranians). Therefore is not surprising similarity Mir-Susne-Hum with Mitra ('Looking all earth'), Dazhdbog and is especial with Odin (eight-winged horse, creation of people, the invention of a network, authority above birds, travel, transformation, a role of mediator).
Yarila is the image belongs to the Cultural Hero type also. He "... is represented extremely close to antique cults of the dying and reviving god of fertility, spring, fructifying force like Dionysus's cult<...> At the Baltic Slavs this god is known to missionaries under name Herovit (Gerovite), his symbol was a brilliant gold shield" (Rybakov, 1994, 420). To the given character it was devoted 'Yarila's day', it is possible June 25" (Rybakov, 1994, 509). Yarila's role was played by the young man in a wreath and rye ears in the right hand, similarity of a human head in left represented (Human head revives in memory the image of the Thracian Hero considered above from Letnitsa). In days of a summer solstice 'Yarila's funeral' was celebrated. "The Essence was that bread already started to ear, the sown grain has successfully executed the function and has caused grains of a new crop. 'Fury' of Yarila was not so necessary, and the doll representing the old man with huge phallus, became buried cheerfully, with laughter and obscene jokes" (Rybakov, 1994, 420). Yarila could correspond with "Jury" - Saint George.
It is necessary to concern with the big care to comparison epic characters with mythological images. Nevertheless, two basic characters of Russian heroic epos - "Bylinas" - Ilya Muromets and Dobrinja Nikitich were repeatedly compared to pagan gods -Perun and Dazhbog accordingly. It is necessary to recognise there are considerable bases. Symptomatically name of Muromets - Ilya. Prophet Ilya (Saint Elias), as it was already spoken, has replaced Perun in national consciousness. Ilya Muromets victory above the Nightingale-Robber (Serpent-Horned-Falcon Belorussian folklore songs) corresponds to a victory of the God of the Thunder agaimst Serpent. Evolution of the God of Thunder in the hero, certainly, is not absolutely typical (usually a prototype of late heroes of the epos our initial type of the Cultural Hero) naturally serves. However sometimes, for example, in the Scandinavian mythology the God of the Thunder has many features of the hero. In "Younger Edda" the myth about Thor and Heyrred is similar to a history of visiting by Ilya Muromets of Svjatogor's father. The Scandinavian myth tells about how Thor has struck artful giant Heirred in his house, having thrown in him the heated piece of iron. In the Russian legend Ilya stretches to the blind father of giant Svjatogor same iron instead of hand shake. Similar similarity can not be casual.
Dobrinya is usually considered late embodiment of Dazhdbog. It proves to be true also some similarity of names, and similarity feat. As we can see, in mythology there are two similar plot about the victory against monster. The God of Thunder wins World Serpent, and the Cultural Hero wins the three-headed dragon. We shall recollect that Saint George was esteemed as the winner of a dragon.
With identification of the Slavic God of Earth Powers there is no problem for east SlavVeles (Volos) likes Balt Vels. He was popular and considered as the god of "all Russia" in counterbalance Perun - to the patron of a princely warriors. In Kiev Perun's idol stood on mountain and Veles's idol down, in the bottom part of city. In ancient Russian sources Veles is the god of cattle and riches. "The Word about Igor's regiment" names legendary poet Boyan (probably, living at court yard Yaroslav Wise) 'Veles's grandson', that reflects connection of the God of Earth Powers with ceremonial and, in genesis - priestly functions.
Veles has left a rich trace in national culture of the Slavs. In winter holidays, taking place from January 7 till January 19, and also on a pancake week April 6 people dressed oneself animal (bull and bear) masks and coats fur outside sheepskin, with cattle bell at a belt. The Bulgarians were kept this custom till second half of 20 century (Rybakov, 1994, 428 - 430). The custom to left last ears in a field, "for Veles's beard" is connected to Veles's cult also.
After christening image of Veles was divided. On the one hand, he was identified with Saint Vlasiy, especially popular in Russian north. Per day of Saint Vlasiy there was a custom of burning of 'the cow death' that reminds burning bones of animals in Balt holiday of vele. In pagan function Veles 'God Volosatik' was perceived as some spirit.
Among names of female deities mentioned in sources are most powerful Ziva,Mokos and Lada . Ziva has got an analogy in Nurystan myths (relic Aryan pagans of Hindu Kush). When gods have suffered defeat in struggle against demons, Nurystan goddess Zhivud has brought the huge bull with which help the gods have got the victory (Myths of nations of the world, 1998, v. 2, 229).
Extremely important character of East Slav pantheon was goddessMokos (Makosh). Her name connect with a verb 'to become wet'; and with 'mokos' - spinning; treat as 'mother of a happy lot, a crop'. All these values do not contradict each other, and show various sides of a uniform image - "goddesses of fertility, water, the patroness of female works and the maiden destiny" (Rybakov, 1994, 392) and going back to an image of the Great Goddess. Mokos was the unique female character among idols of the pagan gods put by prince Vladimir in Kiev. Rybakov believes, that she is represented on one of four sides Zbruch idol with a drinking horn in a hand. In many medieval sources she is mentioned together with Russian mermaids. Probably, Mokos mean in Russian folklore as 'Mother the Crude earth'.
Long Mokos's character lived in Russian North. In Rybakov's opinion she is shown on embroideries (a high figure in the centre, two horsemen on each side). The composition corresponds to the typical image of the Great Goddess in the Ancient East. Gradually role of Mokos is reduced. Northern legends tells about her as the invisible spinner interfering in female works, secretly cutting sheeps, forbidding spinning in holidays. (Rybakov, 1994, 387).
Many Mokos's features after acceptance of orthodoxy are transferred on Saint Paraskeva, that is expressed in cult Paraskeva-Friday, the patroness of earth and cattle. Per day sacred Paraskeva - November, 10 in church fruits of a crop were born for consecration. (Rybakov, 1994, 388 - 389). Friday in general for the Indo-European mythology is connected to reverence of a female deity of fertility (at German peoples - Freyja, at Romance - Venus.
Â. Ivanovand I. Toporov compare Makos with Greek Moirae, Germanic-Scandinavian Nornir spin strings of destiny, Hittite goddesses of the Underworld-spinners, Iranian Ardvisura Anachita (also granting good luck). Scientists believe that she continues the image of female deity - the thunder god's wives in Slavic mythology. (Myths of nations of the world, 1998, v. 2, 169).
Other important female character of Slavic mythology wasLada , the goddess of a marriage, connected with spring ceremonies.
Speaking it is necessary to mention deities of fertility and often images in ancient Russian jeweller art of the winged dog connected to runaways and roots of plants. Rybakov has identified it with. Slav mythology knows it asSemargl , mentioned among sculptures of the pagan gods put by prince Vladimir in Kiev. The scientist, like K.V. Trever compares this name with Persian Simurg - a king of birds and it prototype: ancient Iranian Senmurv . (Trever, 1933). Persians represented Senmurv as winged dog covered with the fish scales, living on Tree All Seeds. It revives in memory Kreta-Minoan and Mikenean the geniuses of fertility (like wolves) serving the Great Goddess. There is a question, in what attitude these images are men-wolves Vendel period of Scandinavia, already considered by us. (above mentioned man-wolf not only carry the weapon and attack 'dancing warriors', but also eat a certain ear, holding it in hands-paws). Whether it is possible to connect peace and friendly Senmurv with Fenrir who murd Odin ? It is known in Zoroastrian representations there was a sharp division between a good dog and the demonic wolf. But whether it is a consequence of splitting there is no time a uniform image? What mythological tragedy stood up for similar division? The question remains open.
It is necessary to note that among Slavic peoples in the most full structure the pantheon of east Slavs is known. To the god of the Clear Sky corresponds Svarog, to the God of Thunder -Perun , to the God of Earth Powers - Veles , to the Cultural Hero - Dazhbog / Yarila, the Great Goddess - Mokos , Lada and others. Thus, especial development worship the Cultural Hero has achieved in western Slav mythology: actually, the majority of their known gods (Svantevit, Herovit, Porevit etc.) can be considered as an embodiment of this type.
CULTURE of BARBAROUS EUROPE: TYPOLOGY of MYTHOLOGICAL IMAGES
Speciality 24.00.01 - the theory and a history of culture
The dissertation on competition of a doctor degree of cultural science
History of the Balts and Slavs.
ATLAS OF MYTHS.