Images of Balt gods 2.
Mythological images of the Balts 2.
Speaking about deities with a root 'vel' it is necessary to touch and the whole class of the mythological essences, personifying spirits died, as a rule, a feminine gender. These are Baltic vele, Slavic vila, ScandinavianValkyrie . "Baltic 'veles' - spirits died which go to live on a sandy hill, 'a hill of veles' where they have the houses or rooms. "The hill of veles' has a gate through which they enter also benches on which they sit that it is known from national poetry. It reminds ancient funeral barrows, wooden rooms or stone tombs. Many places of the Latvian folklore speak about a cemetery on a small sandy hill, frequently so full tombs, that here are not present more rooms for again arriving. It can be memoirs of collective barrows of the Bronze Age with hundreds tombs, or barrows of the Iron Age with tombs of members of one surname " (Gimbutas, 1963. p. 89). In October the Balts marked (and till now mark) Days of vele. In baths, drying houses and premises for them entertainments were arranged. Approximately in same time (from October, 12 till November, 1) Irish celebrate Samhainn - days when the side between this world and other world the worlds disappears, and people can communicate with Tuatha De Danann.
Slavic vila and especially ScandinavianValkyrie they have more warrior character, but in genesis the same spirits died. With reference to these female mythological characters, it is possible to speak about an environment of the God of Earth Powers (it is indicative, that Scandinavian Valkyrie are serves of Odin, having many features of the God of Earth Powers).
As if to Indian Varuna he is less unequivocal, than deities with a root 'vel', but nevertheless it is identified with the God Earth Powers. In Vedas he is a keeper of true and validity, the ruler of space waters. Varuna has magic force, it is favourable to singers, and severely punishs for deviation from the moral law. The cord and a loop - his weapon, he as though holds down the person who wants to ruin. It, in G. Dumezil's opinion (Dumezil, 1986), the given god reminds Odin (which on our hypothesis though also the Hero, but has incorporated many features of the God of Earth Powers). As it was already spoken, in Vedas Varuna operates usually in pair with Mithra (pair - the God of Earth Powers - the Cultural Hero). Not casually mentioned in connection with Scythian-Sarmatian Thrita, appearing at the bottom of well, appeals about the help to Varuna.
Prussian analogue of Vels/Veln was Patollo/Pekols. He entered into the triad of gods, the most esteemed in Romovo sanctuary. According to medieval sources, the sanctuary looked as follows: in the middle of spacious plain there was a huge oak. In it there were three niches in which ancient Prussian sculptures contained. That were: Perkunas, Potrimps and Patollo. Statue of Perkunas had a twisted black beard, a bright-red face and the same colours a sheaf of beams around of a head. Before it the inextinguishable fire flared. To the right of Perkunas there was a sculpture affable young men without beard in a wreath from ears - Potrimps, the god of the rivers and sources, the bearer of fertility and a good harvest. The main symbol of him was the snake lived in a clay urn, covered hay. On the left side from Perkunas there was statue Patollo - the god of Underworld and night phantoms, an embodiment of horror. He was represented as the gray-bearded old man with a white scarf on a head (variant - in a horned helmet). Symbols Patollo were three skulls - the person, a horse and the bull. The described triad reminds Uppsala one (with that difference, that in last the Cultural Hero - Odin occupied the central place) and, is similar to it, was certainly a product of complex intellectual activity of Prussian priests.
There was in Baltic culture also one more image liked the God of Earth Powers. This is Cerocles - the god of fields and cereals. In the message of cardinal Valenti from 1604 A.D. is identified with Veln. "In the report of Jesuits from 1619 it is informed, that at meal on the ground for C. throw the first piece and spill the first drink of drink. The author 18 century Rostovsky names C. the god of hospitality. Name Cerocles make from the Latvian. cerot, 'to cluster' (compare connection C. with cereals), that proves to be true presence in folklore (where C. is not) Ceru mate, 'mothers of bushes'" (Myths of nations of the world, 1998. v. 2, p. 618-619). We shall recollect Iranian saka - 'fork', 'bush', and connection of the given word with a deer. And sounds almost identically: Cerocles -Cernunnos . And that alongside with Ceru mate in Baltic culture exists and Velu mate, together with all rest, it is almost incontestable testifies for the benefit of direct identification Veln/Vels and Cerocles/ Cernunnos.
Unlike others East - and Central mythologies Baltic mythology it is rather poor in the images of the Cultural Hero. Exception makes Sovius, who " was mentioned by the copyist in an insert 1261 to Russian translation of "the Chronicle" by John Malala: Sovius once has caught a wild boar and has given his nine spleens to sons that those them have baked. Having learned that children have eaten them, angry S. has decided to leave in a hell, but could penetrate there only through the ninth gate which to him were specified by one of sons. Then the son himself was directed on searches of the father and, has buried him in the ground. In morning S. has told to the son, that he damaged with worms and reptiles. Then the son has put S. in a tree, but he next morning was damaged mosquitoes and bees. Only after burning S. has told the son, that strong slept, "as a child in a cradle". The Lithuanians and Prussians are named in the story 'peoples of Sovius', and S. - a guide in a hell which was cremation investigator. (Myths of nations of the world, 1998. v. 2, p. 457). In this case we see two closely connected functions combined in one character - a conductor of souls in Other World and the first died. Concerning first of them the precise analogy between Sovius and already considered by us GreekHermes and Roman Mercury is traced. As if to an image of the first died here Baltic tradition likes Indo-Iranian one especially.
In the Indian mythology there is such image as the Yama - the king of ancestors. "Perhaps at the beginning Yama was thought mortal man. It agrees 'Rigveda', he was 'the first who has died' and has opened a way of death for others that is why refers to as 'the Collector of people' who prepares for 'a grave' for deceased". (Myths of nations of the world, 1998. v. 2, p. 682). Further Yama began to be esteemed as the god, one of lokapala - keepers of the world. Indian Yama is identified with Persian Yima. Etymologically their names are interpreted as 'twin', 'double'. There Yima is one of ancestors, the Cultural Hero, legendary ruler in the Iranian mythology. He has divided mankind into four estates: priests, soldiers, farmers and handicraftsmen, has made a military armour, has trained people in weaving, has opened medicinal medicines, at last, has rescued people and fauna from terrible winter (the Iranian analogue of a flood). (Rak, 1998,174 - 178). His time is the Iranian variant of the Golden Age. In 'Avesta' traditions gradual decrease of Yima's image takes place, there is a motive of his fall and the subsequent partition. In 'Younger Avesta'Guyomard ('life mortal') is considered as the ancestor - the lord of the first bull. When demons have destroyed both of them, from Guyomard seed there was a first human pair, and from Primery bull seed there was the bull, the cow and other useful animals. From here we leave on analogy to two other traditions: legends of relic Aryan pagans of Hindu Kush and the Scandinavian mythology. Hindu Kush Aryan demiurg Imra, learned people to dairy milking is the Supreme deity which simultaneously supervises road to a next world. There is giant Imir, brought up by cow Audhumla and caused the giants (and the gods) in Scandinavian Edda. Odin and his brothers having killed Imir, have created the world from his body: from flesh the ground, from blood the sea, from bones of mountain, from a skull the heavenly arch, and from brains of a cloud. Pair: Primery Bull and Primery Ancestor - whether is it is the most ancient, most archaic variant of our tandem - the God of Earth Powers and the Cultural Hero? In that case, Odinn and Mitra - these late images, actually is amazed with the ancient prototypes.
Baltic peoples in the pantheon have kept all basic mythological types. The god of Clear Sky is Dievas, to the God of the Thunder - is Perkunas, the God of Earth Powers - Veln/Vels (Prussian Patollo), to the Cultural Hero - Sovius; to the Great Goddess - Zemes mate, and also some other. Is evident, that at full structure of Balt pantheon, the type of the Cultural Hero is be relative undeveloped. The western representatives of the given cultural world - the Prussians above all put the embodiment of the God of Earth Powers - Patollo. It is known, that there priests played dominant role, comparable on power and religious refinement with Celtic druids. East Balts (it is especial Lithuanians) where ruled by princes, venerated the God of Thunder (that, probably, it is connected to influence of the Vikings andThor's cult). Not probably, the Prussians lost independence (similarly to Celtics) by but the Lithuanians preserved their independence and organised state.
CULTURE of BARBAROUS EUROPE: TYPOLOGY of MYTHOLOGICAL IMAGES
Speciality 24.00.01 - the theory and a history of culture
The dissertation on competition of a doctor degree of cultural science
Images of Slavis gods 1.
ATLAS OF MYTHS.